Laboratory Tests

Laboratory functional tests are extremely helpful to assess your energy production, nutrient efficiency, detoxification issues and digestive function. These may be suggested in cases of chronic conditions or to help you reach your goals more quickly and efficiently. Whenever possible, those tests would be done through your General Practice. In most cases, functional testing is done on private basis and you would be referred to a specialised medical laboratory. Alternatively, we are happy to order those tests for you. The cost of the suggested tests would be discussed during the consultation.

Our fees include the interpretation of your test results. However, an additional consultation would be required to discuss your results and the subsequent protocol in detail. For your convenience, in some cases, these consultations can take place over the phone or Skype.

Some of the functional tests that we recommend to our clients are:

ADRENAL STRESS PROFILE – non- invasive salivary testing

Some of the common imbalances identified through this profile include. Who should be testing? Anyone with symptoms involving fatigue, insomnia, stress, immunity problems, blood sugar problems, and overweight should be tested for cortisol levels as well as “sex” hormones.

Cortisol and DHEA excess or deficiencies, adrenal dysfunction and adrenal fatigue. DHEA:An important adrenal gland hormone, which is essential for energy production and blood sugar balance. DHEA is a precursor to other hormones, mainly testosterone.Cortisol:Your waking day hormone (highest in the morning and lowest at night). It is necessary for energy production, blood sugar metabolism, anti-inflammatory effects and stress response.

 
GUT HEALTH

Gastrointestinal function is important for general health. The intestinal tract contains significant amounts of bacteria; some beneficial, some neutral, and some harmful. Balancing beneficial microbial flora in the gut is key to proper digestion, efficient nutrient usage, and ridding the body of waste and pathogens. Poor digestion and malabsorption can lead to immune dysfunction, nutritional insufficiencies, mental/emotional disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

The GI Effects Profile uses DNA analysis to identify microbiota including anaerobes, a previously immeasurable area of the gut environment. DNA assessment is specific and accurate, avoids the pitfalls of sample transport, reports results as specific numbers, and is more sensitive than classic laboratory methods.

Related assessments for GI Disorders: Celiac Profile – helps to identify celiac disease, an immune mediated response to gluten that affects the gastrointestinal tract.Allergix IgG4 Food Antibody Profile – measures serum levels of IgG4 antibodies specific to 90 food antigens, which can cause gas, 


 
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS PROFILE - HOW ARE YOUR OMEGA3 LEVELS?

Over the past two decades there has been sustained interest in essential fatty acid supplementation. The focus has now switched from supplementation with fish oil to the use of oils containing specific, enhanced concentrations of named essential fatty acids. In the late 1990s large clinical trials such as the GISSI-Prevenzione study were published supporting the cardiovascular benefits of consumption of omega-3 fatty acids. This trial, an Italian study of post-myocardial infarction patients, showed that after 3.5 years, those receiving n-3 fatty acids (850 mg/day) had a 20% reduction in overall mortality, 30% reduction in coronary mortality, and 45% reduction in sudden death.

Improved distillation processing has helped to enhance the purity of supplemental oils and there are now many studies to support the benefits of essential fatty acid supplementation that reach beyond the area of cardiology. To date studies which suggest that omega-3 fatty acid consumption has health-beneficial effects include those on the outcome of pregnancy, in the cognitive and visual development of the neonate, for the treatment and risk reduction of psychiatric disorders, in the prevention of dementia, metabolic syndrome and a variety of other inflammatory conditions.

Biolab has re-established its measurement of red cell essential fatty acids with new instrumentation and is now reporting quantitative values on patient samples for seven omega-6 fatty acids, four omega-3 fatty acids, and a variety of omega-5, omega-7, saturated and trans-fatty acids (32 fatty acids in total). Some of these substances are not considered beneficial to health (for example, the trans-fatty acids) and hence an overall assessment of dietary and supplemental intake of fatty acids can be made.

 
VITAMIN D
Until the renewed upsurge of interest in vitamin D over the past few years, the criteria for vitamin D measurement were based on its action in the formation and maintenance of bone. Subjects with malabsorption, individuals consuming a high phytate diet (which promotes malabsorption of certain nutrients) and patients on anti-convulsants (which speed up catabolism of vitamin D) have also long been recognised as being at risk from vitamin D deficiency.

There is now good evidence for vitamin D having important non-skeletal roles in human physiology in fact being an essential nutrient for every cell in the body, which greatly expands both the indications for its measurement and the public health concerns as to the effects of its deficiency.The diseases with which there is a newly-appreciated association with low vitamin D levels include glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, obesity, heart failure, myopathy, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract infections, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and several types of cancer. The association between vitamin D deficiency and increased cancer risk is particularly strong. There is also good evidence that vitamin D deficiency is a significant cause of cardiovascular disease and of impaired resistance to various types of infection.

 
COMPREHENSIVE THYROID ASSESSMENT

This test analyzes serum levels of TSH, free T4, free T3, reverse T3, anti-TG antibodies, and anti-TPO antibodies to assess central and peripheral thyroid function, as well as thyroid auto-immunity.

 
HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

The Health Risk Profile is a heterogeneous group of laboratory tests, each of which has its own nutritional significance. Within the profile there are 5 panels of tests: Vitamins, Elements, Fatty acids, Enzymes, Bile acids and Proteins

A range of omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids is measured. Either class of essential fatty acid may be deficient, although low intake of omega-3 fatty acids is specifically recognised as one of the major shortfall in the typical UK diet.

The antioxidant enzymes are the first, preventative line of cellular defence against oxidative damage. The normal response to oxidative stress is induction of these enzymes and the increase in their activity makes the release of damaging free radical species less likely. Low levels of these enzymes represent a risk factor for the development of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The health Risk profile includes the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and paraoxonase.

We also measure the phosphatase enzymes, acid phosphatase (as a marker of osteoclastic activity and of prostatic health in the male) and alkaline phosphatase (as a marker of osteoblastic activity and also of possible hepatobiliary obstruction). Lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutathione-S-transferase are part of the profile since their activity may reflect hepatocellular damage and enzyme induction. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) can originate from the cytoplasm of almost any cell in the body and hence increased LDH activity in the serum can also suggest leakage from non-hepatic tissues if other liver function tests are normal.

Bile acids have no known function in the circulation and elevation of serum levels of bile acids is recognised as a sensitive marker of hepato-biliary dysfunction, which can cause obstruction of their flow into the gastro-intestinal tract. Plasma albumin levels are partially dependent on protein intake and absorption; they also depend on other causes of impaired albumin synthesis, such as liver damage and the rate of albumin catabolism (which increases in inflammation). Serum globulins levels largely reflect variations in the gamma globulin fraction (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE) which increase in hepatic disease and other inflammatory disorders.

Measurement of haemoglobin A1C reflects the glucose concentration in the plasma over the preceding c.3 months. Glucose binds to the beta chain of haemoglobin at a rate that reflects the plasma glucose level at any one time. The formed glycosylated haemoglobin circulates for the lifespan of the red blood cell, thus giving an indication of diabetes risk.

 
COMPREHENSIVE CARDIOVASCULAR PROFILE

Each year, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with more deaths than all cancers—and more deaths in women than breast cancer. Unfortunately, diagnosis is typically made in the advanced stages of the disease, after it has progressed for decades. Even though CVD appears to involve a strong familial component, early detection and reduction of risk factors are exceedingly important.

This Comprehensive Cardiovascular Risk Profile provides extensive evaluation of biomarkers of abnormal lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation, coagulation, glomerular filtration and glucose homeostasis, as well as the status of magnesium, iron and key antioxidants.

Assessment of 17 primary and secondary risk factors
Ratios of atherogenic to anti-atherogenic lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins
Requires only a single overnight fasting blood draw
Includes patient-friendly results and commentary
Results are presented in a clear, easy-to-understand report which details target ranges

Lipoprotein-Related Biomarkers
Total and LDL cholesterol, total triglycerides and HDL cholesterol have traditionally been measured to gauge CVD risk. However, recent research indicates that more focused biomarkers can provide even greater insight. For example, oxidized LDL and small dense LDL have been found to be higher in CVD patients and correlated with the severity of CVD. In addition, levels of apolipoproteins A1 and B, specific protein constituents of HDL and LDL, are also strong indicators of risk.

Inflammation
Arterial damage is associated with the infiltration of white cells into vessel walls and inflammation, which increases blood levels of two acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein and ferritin. Although not specific to CVD, analysis of these two proteins is valuable in assessing CVD risk.

Oxidative Stress, Glomerular Filtration and Blood Glucose
Because oxidative stress is a component of CVD, the Comprehensive Cardiovascular Risk Profile measures plasma levels of three primary antioxidants—coenzyme Q10 and á- and _- tocopherol. The test also looks for elevated serum homocysteine, which has long been established as a risk factor. Finally, long-term blood glucose homeostasis and glomerular filtration assessments round out the battery of risk factors analyzed.